all ethnic minority groups are overrepresented in special education

This is especially important in regards to different cultural views surrounding special education. The Journal of Special Education, 32, 15–24. The content of this field is kept private and will not be shown publicly. Under IDEA, one form of advocacy to which parents are entitled is/are, Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Download PDF. Since the 1970s there has been consistent overrepresentation of minorities, particularly African Americans, in special education programs. Many Hispanic students who need additional services or accommodations are not receiving them, being tested for them, and often do not know that they can complete their work and learn more effectively in other settings or with more resources. ), 25% are Black or Black British (Black African, Black Caribbean etc. The research team whose work runs counter to conventional wisdom about minority enrollment in special education has released a new study … . All ethnic minority groups are overrepresented in special education TRUE FALSE. New York: Teachers            College, 2006. a. Bryn Mawr College. Alexandria, VA: National Association of State Directions of Special Education. ), 15% are Mixed Race, 5% are Chinese and 5% are of other ethnic backgrounds. TRUE FALSE 36. African Americans are being assigned the most stigmatizing disability labels (Jordan, 2005). Minority students in the educational system who deserve and require special education are misclassified and misidentified. Statistics and testimonies for documenting similarities between the overrepresentation of African-American and Harry, Beth, and Janette K. Klingner. A 2011 study by Amanda L. Sullivan indicated that ELL students were very likely to be placed in special education and to be identified as having learning disabilities (Ford 397). 2015. : Understanding Race & Disability in Schools. Find answers and explanations to over 1.2 million textbook exercises. This research explores the fact that many minority groups are overrepresented in populations of students enrolled in special education programs. false. From a cyclical view and acknowledging exceptional cases, this frequently destines them to a life of unemployment and crime” (Ford 402). Children from the minority groups are not proficient in English. Developmental psychologists have identified how differences in early childhood education and childcare are associated with academic performance and school readiness for ethnic and racial minority children prior to their entry into K-12 schools. All ethnic minority groups are overrepresented in special education. Many studies have shown that in the course of determining a student’s academic knowledge, needs, accommodations, and areas of weakness, special education teachers as well as other teachers are more likely to recommend a minority student to enroll in a special education program and/or take a special education evaluation than a Caucasian student when these teachers are presented with the same referral information (Togut 173). This new phrasing gave white middle-class students more access to more fitting and useful accommodations, but did not significantly help address the academic needs of students of color. Is the system of special education systematically reproducing the racial and social inequities of our society instead of decreasing them? Racial and ethnic minorities are protected from discrimination in The Equal Protection Clause of the 14th Amendment to the United States Constitution, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1974, and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. One possible explanation for this difference is that urban districts may not identify as many students with special needs as require accommodations. Donna Y. Ford in “Culturally Different Students in Special Education: Looking Backward to Move Forward proposes cultural competency as a possible solution: “How can educators’ being culturally competent decrease misunderstandings and clashes with unnecessary referrals of, and inappropriate special education identification and placement of those whose cultures are different from educators and decision makers?” (Ford 393). All ethnic minority groups are overrepresented in special education. Researchers have challenged the effectiveness of tests in providing accommodations and assistance in special education programs that address student’s needs due to various reasons. African Americans had the highest risk of receiving a disability label in the United States- risk of 14.28%, with Americans Indians/ Alaskan Natives at a risk of 13.10%, Caucasians at a risk od 12%, 11.34% for Hispanics, and 5.31% for Asians. The field must tackle terminology and come to consensus to avoid diluting the magnitude of the problem and the attendant question of are too many Black, Hispanic and/or ELL students inequitably referred to, identified as, and placed in special education and what is the nature of placement? Poverty is a factor in overrepresentation of minorities in special education. Countless teachers have assessed the way African American students speak as not only inappropriate or incorrect, but as so “wrong” to conclude that these students have a language disorder. The difference seems to be that, among similarly achieving students, racial/ethnic minority students are less likely to receive special education services. Despite the widespread belief that African-American and other race/ethnic minority group students are over-represented in special education because of systemic bias, our calculations show that U.S. schools primarily aim to provide special education services for students who are struggling academically. Web. According to the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, a study came out in 2000 that concluded that 5% of Asian/ Pacific Islanders, 11% of Hispanics, 12% of Whites, 13% of Native Americans, and more then 14% of African Americans were identified for special education (National Research Council 1-2). Studies have shown that the number of minority students enrolled in a school directly correlates to the school’s overall percentage of students in special education programs. Minority students are more often referred to special education programs for behavioral problems than academic issues. This preview shows page 6 - 8 out of 15 pages. Special education teachers should have a better knowledge of the students they work with and the children’s families. Digital Commons American University Washington College of Law. Such disproportionate representation of minority groups is an ongoing national problem. From a legal perspective, evidence of a pattern of disproportionate representation has been sufficient to initiate a legal or policy action to reduce disproportionality. Since the state began tracking the disproportions in 2002, the disparities in special education placement among different racial and ethnic groups have decreased in many school districts. It is also not guaranteed that a special education program will address these needs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy, 2002. Cultural bias built-into IQ Tests makes it more difficult for students to demonstrate their intelligence when they do not perform well academically (Harry and Klingner 5). Many environmental factors contribute to whether or not a student will be placed in special education: the child’s neighborhood and housing stability, geographic location, home environment, and the quality of healthcare the student and his/ her/ their family receives. Though it is more difficult for English Language Learners to navigate the unfamiliar cultural practices and language in school, this does not mean that they should be enrolled in special education or that they have a disability. Donovan, Suzanne, and Christopher T. Cross. (2005). Rpt. What does the future look like for people of color’s overrepresentation in special education programs? When teachers think that a student has a language disorder, the student is often referred to speech and hearing evaluation and services. However, these students do not necessarily have these disabilities or the severity of disabilities they are diagnosed with. Special educators should have formal preparation before working with students with many needs: attending conferences, professional development/ inservice workshops, multicultural courses, and enrolling in degree programs that address issues of race/class/gender/ethnicity. The primary purpose of multicultural education is to teach children of ethnic minorities about their history and the intellectual, social, and artistic contributions of their ancestors. 2015. Lines and paragraphs break automatically. African Americans, Latinos, American Natives, and Asians; in essence, all ethnic groups except Whites. “A daunting yet essential task in the past and future had been and is to research consensus on (a) terminology and (b) measurement, in terms of what constitutes potentially illegal representation of Black and Hispanic students in special education” (Ford 398). According to Torn D. Togut in “The Gestalt of the School-to-Prison Pipeline: The Duality of Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education and Racial Disparity in School Discipline on Minorities” the location of schools contributes to the percentage of students in a school that will be enrolled in special education programs: “Furthermore, overcrowded schools that are disproportionately located in school systems with a high percentage of minorities contribute to the faulty identification processes, which has a disparate impact on minority students” (Togut 170-71) High-stakes testing, which leads to children being retained at grade level, contributes to the disproportionate number of minorities in special education. How can the field increase accuracy in referring, assessing, labeling, and serving Black, Hispanic (students) … who truly require special education interventions?” (Ford 392) Many educators and education researchers propose that special education teachers should be required to take multicultural courses and the degrees that they receive should help them become culturally competent, aware, and open to new ideas, customs, and changing classroom environments. Minority students in special and gifted education. After years of research, a study resolved that differences in calculated performance, intelligence, and aptitude that culminate in one child being classified as disabled and another not being given this label are completely arbitrary and determined by social judgments. The greater number of minority students in special education is a result of school politics, relationships between school officials and parents, quality of education outside of these programs, classroom management of the referring teacher, and poorly trained teachers that work at minority schools. on: Sep 25, 2019 Exceptional Learners: An Introduction to Special Education ¦ Hallahan, Kauffman, Pullen ¦ 14 th Edition Some ethnic minorities are underrepresented in special education. Moreover, the American schools demand that all children should pass the language proficiency test. Journal of Gender, Social Policy & the Law 4th ser. Have just as difficult, if not more difficult time coping with their feelings than their, The degree to which families are able to change their modes of interaction when they, encounter unusual or stressful situations refers to, Families of a child with a disability tend to experience most stress during, 44. resources in schools, the idea of using special education placements arose. According to Donna Y. Ford in “Culturally Different Students in Special Education: Looking Backward to Move Forward” many people question the overrepresentation of people of color in special education:  “Special education is under constant legal and personal scrutiny regarding the overrepresentation (number and percentage) of black and sometimes Hispanic American students” (Ford 398). ESE 301 -Chapter 5 Activity(1) 12.30.25 PM.docx, Carlos Albizu University • SPEECH-LAN 301, Comp Exam Study Guide - Old but still Good, [Willig,_Stainton-Rogers]_The_SAGE_Handbook_of_Qua(z-lib.org).pdf, Carlos Albizu University • PSYCHOLOGY PSYM 525, Carlos Albizu University • PSYCHOLOGY 689, Carlos Albizu University • PSYCHOLOGY 718. : Council for Exceptional Children, 2012. Study on Minorities in Special Education Proves Provocative Education Week, June 25, 2015 Minority Children are Unrepresented in Special Education OC Weekly, June 25, 2015. Minority students are often treated as one group and therefore their abilities and challenges are attributed to their perceived race/ ethnicity. The primary purpose of multicultural education is to teach children of ethnic minorities, about their history and the intellectual, social, and artistic contributions of their. Many non-white students respond to questions or prove their knowledge in a way that is unfamiliar to teachers and can be misinterpreted as incorrect or considered unacceptable. 20.1 (2011): 163-81. Matthew Burns. One of the greatest policies to be enacted in the American educational system is the Individuals with Disability Education Act (IDEA) of 1990. 6/24/2015 PENN State. Bibliography: Donovan, S., & Cross, C. (2002). Data from the Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) annual reports to Congress on the implementation of IDEA show that over-representation of minority students in special education is a problem that affects educational equity in our country. , amount of youth in a specific group that is positioned in special education and the amount is greater than the amount in the public school , mental retardation (now called intellectual disability), learning disabilities, and emotional disturbance. main minority groups – African Americans in the United States, and the Roma population in Romania – into low-achievement school tracks, specifically special education. Virtually faultless with respect to their child’s problems. What You Thought About Minority Students and Special Ed Is Wrong “Cultural differences among students, families, and teachers have been offered as a major explanation for overreferrals and thus overrepresentations. In the educational system, which for some is a bridge to the special education system, minority students are both misidentified and misclassified. . READ PAPER. In 2000, 6% of all students were identified as having a Learning Disability (National Research Council 2). Some assumptions based on language lead teachers to recommend more students of color to special education programs. Studies have shown that the more urban a school district, the lower percentage of the minority students are enrolled in special education. The label, “Learning Disability” was created as a less stigmatizing, alternative term to mental retardation (Harry and Klingner 5). g. People from certain minority groups are more likely to be subject to stop and search, arrest and imprisonment, and Black people have very much higher rates of arrest. Happy exploring! Ideally this training will reduce unnecessary referrals and overrepresentation of minorities in special education. 13 Apr. Print. Today, many more people are identified with learning disabilities. Some teachers have made sweeping conclusions about what a child needs and the child’s abilities or lack there of based on their assumptions of how a child should act in class or their observations about how a child of a certain race or ethnicity performs and completes assignments. In general, students of color are disproportionately overrepresented among children with disabilities: black students are 40 percent more likely, and American Indian students are 70 percent more likely, to be identified as having disabilities than are their peers. h. Ethnic minority groups are under‐represented in most professions working within the justice system. These tests are the main determinant of whether or not a student is placed in a special education program. This practice continued through time and has led to the growing problem of overrepresentation of minorities in special education programs. Equity is affected because misidentifying students might cause their educational experiences to become unnecessarily limited or might cause educators … There are many assumptions made about qualifications for the label of disability, especially in-terms of behavior. 37 Full PDFs related to this paper. Togut, Torin D. "The Gestalt of the School-to-Prison Pipeline: The Duality of      Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education and Racial Disparity in School   Discipline on Minorities." Course Hero is not sponsored or endorsed by any college or university. Children of color have historically been labeled “emotionally handicapped.” This term does not address a child’s needs, intelligence, or capabilities. Access to schooling and special education services remains a challenge for many children with disabilities around the world. As stated by Donna Y. Ford in “Culturally Different Students in Special Education: Looking Backward to Move Forward,” ideas about how a child should act and what determines whether or not a child has a disability are different for various people:  “As Beth Harry has noted in several studies, views about behavior as well as what constitutes a disability, disorder, or special education needs vary across cultural groups and subgroups” (Ford 395). The new terminology for the categorization of people with different learning needs reinforced racist assumptions about intelligence and the aptitude of minorities. White school districts enroll a higher percentage of minority students in special education. Why is it the case that some ethnic minorities underachieve in the education system? Ford, Donna Y. 13 Apr. Whether or not a behavior is deemed “appropriate” is heavily influenced by the person who is observing the child’s behavior and his/her/their sociopolitical and cultural background. N.p. For example, researchers have asserted that these tests often result in attributing learning disabilities to students who present their knowledge in unrecognized forms of individual and cultural expression. In reality, students come form many different socioeconomic backgrounds and there are some minorities and (Caucasians) who need a lot of learning accommodations and others who simply need to learn in different environments. I n th e no t to o distan t A short summary of this paper. Have the opposite reaction to the sibling than do their parents. The data concluded that Hispanics are not overrepresented in special education and individual studies on particular Hispanic groups overwhelming present the opposite conclusion. Racial-, ethnic-, and language-minority children may be less likely to meet these standards as a result of receiving lower-quality educations provided at underresourced schools (e.g., Peske & Haycock, 2006) and so more likely to be identified for special education. Part of the reasoning behind the higher representation of minority students in white school districts is that white districts have more thorough and difficult academic standards than in-city districts with mostly minorities. b. Often teachers have a harder time relating and understanding students of color because they may present their knowledge in unconventional ways. true. According to Torin D. Togut in “The Gestalt of the School-to-Prison Pipeline: The Duality of Overrepresentation of Minorities in Special Education and Racial Disparity in School Discipline on Minorities,” there are many reasons why there is an overrepresentation of African Americans in special education programs: “There are several interacting factors contributing to the disparity of African Americans in special education ‘including unconscious racial bias of educators, large resource inequities that run along liens of race and class, unjustifiable reliance on [intelligence tests], educators’ inappropriate responses to the pressures of high-stakes testing, and power differentials between parents of students of color and school officials” (Togut 164). More than one in 10 students is identified for special education services (National Research Council2). The overrepresentation of ethnic and linguistic minorities in special education has resulted in several well kn… This digest concerns the overrepresentation of minority students in special education. To a lesser extent, some groups of students are underrepresented in special education and overrepresented in programs for gifted and talented students. Remote Ready Biology Learning Activities has 43 remote-ready activities, which work for either your classroom or remote teaching. Research is consistently showing that racial and ethnic minority students are less likely to be identified for special education than white students. Overrepresentation of minority groups is a concern of many, from policymakers in Washington, D.C., to local school principals. How can we change the social processes that channeled people of color into special education programs? Teachers refer minority students to special education programs more often than Caucasian students, and teachers mainly refer students to special education programs. Racially, ethnically, and linguistically different students made up 32% of public schools in 1989, 39% of public schools in 1999, and 45% of public schools in 2000 (Ford 392). Educators have a lot of agency in deciding what they test a child for, when to use alternative tests, and how much weight they put on each test in evaluating a child’s needs, abilities or lack there of. (1997). They question if minority students are too often labeled as needing special education, which could take them out of mainstream classes and deny them a normal track through school and onto college. Minority Students in Special and Gifted Education. Download Full PDF Package. Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically. Markowitz, J., Garcia, S. B., & Eichelberger, J. Disparities in health care, housing, and employment are all part of the portrait of inequity of which special education is but one slice. The overrepresentation of minority students is an increasingly important issue as minority students are becoming the majority of public school populations. Fear, misjudgment, and misinterpretation of black males contributes to their overrepresentation in special education programs. One of the issues with proper labeling and identification of a child’s need is that states define disabilities and give out accommodations differently. There are many controversies about language differences, proper language, and what constitutes a disability among educators and assessors of learning disability tests. How can we create terminology that more accurately describes students’ needs, strengths, and challenges or is the labeling constricting the ways we can help children succeed, learn, and grow? Although minority children are frequently reported to be overrepresented in special education classrooms, a team of researchers suggests that minority children are less likely than otherwise similar white children to receive help for disabilities. The underlying assumption of overrepresentation among all minority groups is that, when represented accurately, the proportion of different ethnic groups in ant category or program should be equal to the proportion of the same group in the general school population. States have been required to monitor their districts for racial and ethnic disparities in special education since 1997, but few districts nationwide have been identified as having a problem. The IQ Tests that are given to students have an ingrained cultural bias which makes it more challenging for people of color to prove their knowledge. ... and not all overrepresented groups are . According to the Office of Civil Rights (OCR), in 2006 black students represented 17.13% of public school students, yet 32.01% were identified as having an intellectual disability, and 20.23% as having a specific Learning Disability (Ford 398). Serendip is an independent site partnering with faculty at multiple colleges and universities around the world. The main reasons teachers send students to special education programs are because they think a student is stupid, does not know how to learn, or/and has a behavioral problem. Given this, what is the best policy for the future to address t… Resources for Teaching about Coronavirus has descriptions and links for multiple resources to use in teaching and learning about coronavirus. Today, “minorities and English language learners are overrepresented in special education at the national, state, and district level” (Sullivan, 2011, p.324). In-terms of referrals and the structure of special education programs, minority students’ needs are both misunderstood, considered after a diagnosis of their intellectual capacities, and not adequately addressed. There are many assumptions about black and Latino inadequacy, there are low expectations for minorities, and cultural insensitivity towards minorities, which are explicit in all levels and stages of the special education process and programs. Schools with larger class sizes and lower teacher salaries often have a higher percentage of students in special education. Minorities Less Likely to Be Identified for Special Education, Study Finds Education Week, June 24, 2015. All ethnic minority groups are overrepresented in special education. Web. Specifically, differences in values, beliefs, attitudes, customs, and traditions between white teachers and their RELD (Racially, ethnically, and linguistically different) students contribute to low expectations and deficit thinking on the one hand and cultural misunderstandings on the other” (Ford 392-93). c. Unable to work effectively with their child unless they first experience an emotional, their child if he or she was the first-born child, The reactions of extended family members are important because they can often play a, Young siblings of a child with a disability are likely to. Although minority children are frequently reported to be overrepresented in special education classrooms, a team of researchers suggests that minority … 391-403. What You Thought About Minority Students and Special Ed Is Wrong A Penn State study says societal hurdles mean not enough – instead of too many – minorities are receiving special education … (Ford 400). Questions about proper testing and language assessment have been raised due to the high percentage of African Americans in special education programs. This manuscript briefly examines minority participation within the school population that is eligible for special education services--namely, African Americans in the United States and the Roma population in Romania. not all minority ethnic groups are over represented . Dictionary of Key Terms for Health Literacy, Summer Institutes for K-12 Teachers 1995-2010, http://ecx.sagepub.com/content/78/4/391.full.pdf+html, http://digitalcommons.wcl.american.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1553&cont. Of the ethnic minorities in the UK, 50% are Asian or Asian British (Indian, Pakistani etc. “In the name of accountability and being culturally responsive, how can educators own up to past (unnecessary) barriers and considerably reduce (and ideally eliminate) racial inequities in special education? Why Are so Many Minority Students in Special Education? This paper. According to the Committee on Minority Representation in Special Education, a study came out in 2000 that concluded that 5% of Asian/ Pacific Islanders, 11% of Hispanics, 12% of Whites, 13% of Native Americans, and more then 14% of African Americans were identified for special education (National Research Council 1-2). To be that, among similarly achieving students, and teachers mainly refer students to special education, Finds. Ideally this training will reduce unnecessary referrals and overrepresentation of minority groups is an National... Of student groups within special education: Looking Backward to Move Forward. - 8 of. Over- and underrepresentation of student groups within special education representation in special education remains!, D.C., to local school principals particularly African Americans are being assigned the most stigmatizing disability (. 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